Psychologists take opposing views of how external rewards, from warm praise to cold cash, affect motivation and creativity. Behaviorists, who study the relation between actions and their consequences, argue that rewards can __1__ perfor*nce at work and school. Cognitive(认识派的) researchers, who study various aspects of mental life, *intain that rewards often destroy creativity by encouraging dependence on __2__ and gifts from others.
The latter view has gained *ny supporters, __3__ among educators. But the careful use of s*ll __4__ rewards speaks creativity in grade school children, suggesting that properly presented inducements(*) indeed __5__inventiveness, according to a study in the June Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
“If kids know they’re working for a reward and can focus on a relatively __6__ task, they show the most creativity,” says Robert Eisenberger of the University of Delaware in Newark. “But it’s easy to __7__ creativity by giving rewards for poor perfor*nce or creating too much anticipation for rewards.
A teacher who continually draws attention to rewards or who hands our high grades for __8__ achievement ends uPwith uninspired students, Eisenberger holds. As an example of the latter point, he notes growing efforts at *jor universities to tighten grading standards and __9__ failing grades.
In early grades, the use of so-called token economies, in which students handle challenging problems and receive perfor*nce-based points to ward valued rewards, shows __10__ in raising efforts and creativity, the Delaware psychologist claims.